Vol. 1 No. 1; May 2012

International Journal of Applied Research and Technology

ISSN 2277-0585

 Vol. 1,  No. 1      |        May 2012

 Title:            Assessment of yam biodiversity at community level in Anambra State of Nigeria, West Africa


Author(s):  C. F. Uwasomba, O. N. Eke-Okoro, A. Udealor and J. E.G.   Ikeorgu


Abstract:  Yams (Dioscorea sp., family Dioscoreacea) which are annual or perennial tuber-bearing and climbing plants are an important tuber crop in Anambra State of Nigeria. It is the only crop that is celebrated amongst the people. Over 600 species exit but only few are cultivated as food for man’s use. The yam belt stretches from the humid rainforest in the South to the Northern Guinea Savannah. About 85% of a yam tuber is edible, comprising of 15-23% starch, 1-2.5% protein, 0.05- 0.2% fat and so forth. Diverse species exit in the different communities as a result of farmers preferences. This very important food crop is faced with serious problems of loss of biodiversity and land degradation. Earlier survey carried out for collection and conservation of the diversities of this crop could not be sustained in the gene bank as a good number of them have gone on extinction. This necessitated the need for collaborative efforts by Global Crop Diversity Trust (GCDT) and National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike to embark on a survey to collect all the landraces in the yam belt of Nigeria in which Anambra State falls, with the aim of identifying those that are extinct from the farming systems of the studied areas. Questionnaire with open-ended questions was used to gather information from the farmers. Information on farmer’s varietal, agronomic, culinary, socio-cultural and economic characteristics was discussed. Farmers in the studied areas reported that a total of five yam accessions have gone on extinction.

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Title:            Effects of Cropping Systems on Growth and Yield of Yam     (Dioscorea rotundata) Genotypes and Egusi Melon (Colocynthis citrullus) on an Ultisol


Author(s):    A.O.Ikeh, N. U Ndaeyo, G. A. Iwo, O. S. Aderi, J. E. G. Ikeorgu,E. C. Nwachukwuand B. A. Essien


Abstract:  A two year (2008 and 2009) study was carried out to assess the compatibility of some  white yam genotypes intercrop with melon on an ultisol of Uyo, southeastern Nigeria. A randomised complete block design with a split plot arrangement was used and replicated three times. Five yam genotypes (TDr 95/19127, TDr 95/18894, TDr 95/19531, TDr 75/1/2 and eteme (a local variety)  constituted the main treatments while cropping systems - sole melon and intercropping melon with the  5 yam genotypes (TDr 95/19127+ melon, TDr 95/18894 + melon, TDr 95/19531+ melon, TDr 75/1/2 + melon and eteme + melon) were the sub treatments .Results revealed significant differences among the yam genotypes in growth, yield and yield components. . TDr 95/18894 produced the highest tuber yield (28.56 t/ha and 31.35 t/ha in 2008 and 2009, respectively). The least tuber yield was recorded in local variety Eteme (9.75 t/ha and 13.63 t/ha in 2008 and 2009, respectively). TDr 95/18894 out-yielded other genotypes by 3-66 and 8-57% in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Also, TDr 95/18894 was more adaptable to intercropping than other genotypes. (33.10 t/ha and 35.70 t/ha in 2008 and 2009, respectively) whereas TDr 75/1/2 preferred sole cropping (33.13 t/ha and 31.10 t/ha) in 2008 and 2009, respectively) compared to intercropping.  Melon yielded more  under sole cropping (4.71 t/ha in 2008 and 5.01 t/ha in 2009)  which exceeded intercropped yields by 2-19 and 2-18% in both cropping seasons Land Equivalent Ratio  indicated that intercropping was more advantageous than sole cropping irrespective of the genotype.

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 Title:            The Relevance of Library in National Development

Author(s):    O. A. Uwanamodo and C. F. Uwasomba


Abstract:     Development plans are based on qualitative and reliable data.  Library as a collection of books and other vital records remain an important source of information for national development. Education and Library are fundamentally and synchronically related. One cannot be separated from the other, and the existence of one is impossible without the other. None of them is an end in itself; rather both of them together are a means to an ultimate end.The paper highlights the importance of library as a source of information for development planning and advocates for its establishment in rural and urban areas. This will enhance easy access to information by all stakeholders irrespective of their locations or domains for human and national development. Library is the fountain and source of data and the protector and storehouse of knowledge and experience that can be harnessed to transform the society positively. A good well equipped library is a sine qua non for intellectual, moral and spiritual advancement of people and their micro (village, community etc.) and macro (state and the nation) environment.

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Title:            Potentials of Ladybird Beetles in Sustainable Plant Health Management

Author(s):    C. F. Uwasomba, T .O. Ezulike, A. Udealor and G. O. Chukwu


Abstract:    The cost and hazardous effects of chemical method of pest control is a major challenge in environmental management. This paper presents the potentials of Ladybird beetles which are of Coccinellidae family as a low input, cheap and environmentally friendly method of sustainable plant health management.

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Title:           Evaluation of the performance and productivity of Grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) fed three improved root and tuber crop varieties with grasses


 Author(s):    C. O. Okereke, N. C. Ezebuiro, A. Udealor and E. Oti

 Abstract:   20 (Twenty) weanling grasscutters of mixed sex at 15 weeks of age, were  used to carry out studies on the performance and productivity of grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) fed 3 improved root and tuber crop varieties with grasses. The experimental design was completely randomized design (CRD). The weanling grasscutters were selected on the bases of similar body weights and divided into five treatment groups, each comprising 4 weanling grasscutters. Each treatment group was further sub divided into two replicates of two birds each. The average daily feed intake was highest (109.81g) for grasscutters on diet II (Dried sweet potato chips + Elephant grass) and lowest (99.05g) for grasscutters on diet IV (Dried Cocoyam tuber chips + Elephant grass).  The average daily weight gain was highest (1299g) for grasscutters on diets II (Dried sweet potato chips + Elephant grass) and lowest (1089g) for grasscutter on diets IV (Dried Cocoyam tuber chips + Elephant grass). Average daily Gain (ADG) was significantly affected by the presence of test ingredients in the experimental diet. There were significant (P< 0.01) differences among the treatments in feed conversion ratio, Diets III and I were similar with positive trend, while diets IV and V were similar at negative trend. The experiment showed that, diet V (Elephant grass) sole cannot support the production of grasscutters. Diet VI (Dried Cocoyam tuber chips + Elephant grass) need to be processed to detoxify Oxalate, Tannin and HCN to a tolerable level.  Diet II (Dried sweet potato chips + Elephant grass) was a better diet for grasscutters than the rest of the tested ingredients.

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Title:           Growth Pattern of Maize (Zea mays L.) as Influenced by Sowing Dates and Poultry Manure Rates

Author(s):    O. S Aderi and N. U. Ndaeyo

Abstract:  Sowing date and manure rate experiments with maize (FARZ-7) as the test crop were conducted at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The treatments consisting of sowing dates (May 28, June 11, June 25, July 9, July 23, and August 6 in 1991 and April 16, April 30 and May 14 in 1992) and poultry manure rates (0, 20 and 40t/ha in 1991 and 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50t/ha in 1992) were factorially combined and laid out on a randomized complete block design with three replicates for two years. Results showed that early sowing (April to mid May) significantly increased the number of functional leaves per plant between 5 and 10 weeks after sowing (WAS) while late sowing significantly decreased the number of functional leaves per plant between 5 and 7 WAS. Leaf area index (LAI) followed similar trend while maize height increased significantly with early sowing compared with late sowing. Application of poultry manure increased the number of functional leaves per plant significantly from 12.4 for 0t/ha manure rate to 15.4 for 40t/ha rate for early sowing at 9 WAS and from 8.2 for 0t/ha manure to 13.5 for 40t/ha manure during the same period (9 WAS) for late sowing. LAI also increased significantly from 3.03 for 0t/ha to 5.22 at 40t/ha for early sowing at 9 WAS and from 1.77 at 0t/ha to 4.01 for 40t/ha during the same period for late sown maize. Maize height increased significantly with organic manuring from 241.0cm for the control to 323.5cm for 40t/ha manure with early sowing at 9 WAS and from 167.9cm at 0t/ha to 293.6cm for 40t/ha manure rate during the same period for late sowing. There was a near sigmoidal growth pattern of maize with manure application. It is concluded that since early sowing and organic manuring increased the size of maize, (leaf number, leaf area index and height) which has been reported to correlate highly and significantly with grain yield, early sowing with supplemental application of poultry manure should be adopted as a management practice for maize cultivation on the coarse-textured soils of southeastern Nigeria.

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 Title:            Evaluation of the Structural Characteristics of Sweetpotato Market in South East Agro-ecological Zone of Nigeria

 Author(s):  H. N. Anyaegbunam


Abstract:    The study was carried out in 2010 in the south east agro ecological zone of Nigeria to determine the structural characteristics of the market for sweetpotato with respect to the degree of market concentration. A multistage random sampling technique was used in selecting respondents and markets. A total of 360 respondents comprising 240 retailers, 120 wholesalers and 24 markets were randomly chosen. The list of wholesalers and retailers who pay stallage fees formed the sampling frame. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire and interview schedule. Analyses of data were done with descriptive statistic and Gini coefficient model. The results of the findings revealed that the Gini coefficient obtained from the wholesale and the retail markets were G = 0.51 and G = 0.56 respectively. This implies that market concentrations in both markets were high. The results however indicated a relatively greater degree of concentration in the retail market than the wholesale. The magnitude of these market concentrations is an indication of a monopolistic tendency and imperfect market competitiveness. It is therefore recommended that the most effective way of reducing concentration is through improved transportation system, provision of market stalls and good access to credit facilities.

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  Title:   Sustainable Micro–Credit Delivery Scheme: A Tool for Poverty Alleviation in Abakaliki Local Government Area of Ebonyi State

 Author(s):  B. N. Mbam and S. U. Nwibo

 Abstract:    The study assessed the use of micro-credit in poverty alleviation in Abakaliki Local Government Area of Ebonyi state. A total of 120 respondents were used for the study. Data were collected using structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study found that most (72%) of the beneficiaries were within the age range of 31-50 years and majority of those who accessed micro-credits were males, married and literate. Most of the beneficiaries engaged in full time farming, cultivated less than 2.0 hectares of land and accessed mainly informal source of credit. Again, the results of the study showed that micro-credit if accessed affect their beneficiaries positively. The multiple regression result showed that only the educational level and the marital status of the respondents influenced their degree of accessibility of micro-credit significantly. However, the R2 value (14.10%) was low though significant. It was recommended that the micro-credit should be delivered at low single digit interest rate and micro-finance institutions should be encouraged to improve on their outreach.

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