Vol. 1 No. 2; June 2012

      International Journal of Applied Research and Technology

ISSN 2277-0585

                                           Vol.1, No. 2      |        June 2012


                                    Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Sociology

Title:          Determinants of Catfish Consumption among Urban Dwellers: Empirical Evidence from Egbeda L. G. A., Oyo State.


Author(s):   I. O. Ogunwande, O. Adeosun, W. K. Raheem and G. O. Oyelere

                                                                        

Abstract:   The study investigated the determinants of catfish consumption in Egbeda Local Government Area of Oyo State. A total of 118 respondents were interviewed in the study. Primary data were collected by administering 118 copies of questionnaires. Descriptive Statistics (DS) and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) multiple regression model were used to analyzed data. The descriptive statistics result therefore showed that female consumers out-numbered their male counterparts and the majority of respondents were married with an average income of N21, 150.00k which earned them the optimal purchasing power for catfish. Exponential model was found to be the lead equation among the four models fitted. Age(X1), years of education(X2), household size(X3), household income(X4) and average price of fish(X5) were found to be signed according to a prori expectation and all were statistically different from zero at 1% and 5% levels respectively. The elasticity results showed that all variables were income in-elastic and catfish was described as necessity. Also, null hypothesis was rejected as t-value was -10.49 was significant different from zero at 1% level. It was recommended among others that there should be awareness for the people on consumption of fish owing to its high nutritional value and financial assistance should be provided by government to fish producers in other to reduce the market price for consumers.

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 Title:   Comparative Analysis of Productivity of Cassava Based Crop Mixture under Modern and Indigenous Technologies in Anambra State, Nigeria

 Author(s):  I.U. Nwaiwu, P. C. Obasi, J.S.Orebiyi, U.C. Ibekwe, O.C.Korie, A.Henri-Ukoha, E.C.C.Amaechi and C.O.Osuagwu


 Abstract: This study compared and analyzed indigenous and modern agricultural technologies used in cassava production in Anambra State. Multi-stage sampling technique was used in sample selection. A total of 160 farmers were purposively selected from the four Agricultural zones that made up the state based on the use of modern and indigenous technologies. Data were collected using structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and total factor productivity were used in analyzing the data. The result of the analysis showed that both categories of farmers are within the working class age bracket of 40 and 60 years. The modern technology users were found to be more educated, have larger farm holding and higher average income per hectare than their counterparts. Farmers that used indigenous technologies have larger household size than those that used modern technologies. The total factor productivity (TFP) ratios computed for modern and indigenous technology users are 1.493 and 0.758 respectively.  Sequel to the fact that the Z-calculated was higher than the Z-tabulated, the null hypothesis was rejected. This implies that there was a statistically significant difference between the productivity of farmers that used modern technologies and those that used indigenous technologies. The F-ratio tested also confirmed the higher variance in TFP for the two categories of farmers which shows a higher significant difference in the mean values. It was therefore concluded that the use of modern technologies in cassava production should be encouraged because they ensure higher agricultural productivity among farmers.

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Title:            Agricultural Land Management Practices for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Ohaji Area of Imo State, Nigeria

Author(s):   J. Chikaire, F.N. Nnadi, N.O. Anyoha, M.A. Ukpongson and J.I. Okeh


Abstract:    The aim of the study was to describe Agricultural Land Management Practices for Climate Change Adaptation and mitigation in Ohaji area of Imo State. The objectives of the study were to, describe the socio-economic characteristics of responding farmers in the study area, determine the farmers awareness of climate change in the study area, describe land management practices to adapt and mitigate climate change. Data were collected through questionnaire distributed to 120 farmers randomly selected from six villages. Percentages, frequency distribution table, and mean were used to analyze the data. Results showed that most of the farmers (79.2%) are fully aware of climate change issues and have observed it in various forms. They have seen it in rainfall pattern, excessive heat of sun, prolonged dryness, diseases outbreak and others .To adapt, farmers adopt land management practices like mulching, agro-forestry, conservation tillage, crop rotation and other measures available. Extension visits be extended to the farmers to bring them to tune with modern practices.

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 Title:             Evaluation of Farmers Adoption of Agricultural Innovation in Oyi Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria

 Author(s):    Agbom, M. D.

 Abstract:    The study evaluated farmers’ adoption of agricultural innovation in Oyi L.G.A of Anambra State. A multi-stage random samplingtechnique was employed to select a total of 120 respondents for the study. Primary data used were collected with the aid of questionnaire and oral interview schedule. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as tables, frequency, percentage and mean score etc and inferential statistics such as regression analysis. The result showed that 58% of the farmers were females, while 84% are married, and having an average household size of 8. Furthermore, more than half (74.2%) of the farmers were between 31-60, while 71.6% of the farmers had a farm size (ha) ranging between 2-5. The result of the multiple regression analysis showed the multiple determinations (R2) was 0.616 or 61.6%, implying that 61.6% of total variation observed in the level of farmers adoption of agricultural innovation in the area was explained by the variables included in the model. The co-efficient of Age (X1), Marital Status (X3), and family size (X6) bored positive coefficient, while sex (X2), educational qualification (X4) and farm size (X7) showed negative coefficient. The test of hypothesis showed significance relationship between farmers’ socio-economic characteristics and their level of adoption of agricultural innovations in the area. The result further shows that fertilizer, agro-chemical and improved varieties of seeds have been adopted by the farmers to very large extent. High cost of innovation, inadequate fund, cultural and poor extension service among other were some of the factors identified that constraints adoption of innovation by the farmers. It was therefore recommended that efficient and effective extension service be introduced to farmers, local fabrication of agro-technological/ innovations based on socio-economic background of the farmers should be pursue and granting of credit facilities to farmer by government to aid them in procuring innovative technologies.

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Title:             Assessment of Technical Efficiency Differentials among Organic and  Inorganic Fertilizer Users in Oyo State: A Stochastic Frontier Approach.

 Author(s):    I.O. Ogunwande, I.A. Ajibefun and O.O. Ojo

 Abstract:     The study investigated the differences in the technical efficiency of small scale farmers using organic fertilizer and otherwise in the study area. A total of eighty (79) respondents were interviewed. Descriptive Statistics was used to identify socio-economic characteristics while Stochastic Frontier Production (SFP) was used to assess the efficiency differentials for the groups. The result showed that organic fertilizer users (OFUs) and Inorganic Fertilizer users (IFUs) had average farm yield of 2,430kg and 1,720kg per hectare, respectively. In the acceptance of organic fertilizer, the majority of the OFUs were found to believe in its use as it improves soil structure, soil fertility and reduces soil erosion while IFUs refused to accept thus adducing the reason to causation of pests and diseases in their farms. The mean efficiency score for OFUs and IFUs were 0.95 and 0.87 respectively. The results for the return to scale of the farmers were 0.67 and 0.33 for OFUs and IFUs, respectively which revealed that organic farmers operated at the stage II while IFUs at stage I of the production surface. It was therefore recommended that organic fertilizer should be used by all farmers in the rainforest, as it improves soil quality and ultimately the crop yield.

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 Title:             Socio-Economic Assessment of Catfish Farmers in Owerri Municipal Council Area, Imo State, Nigeria

 Author(s):     O.O. Nwankwo and S. E. Mbanaso

 

Abstract:     Socio-economic characteristics of catfish farmers in Owerri Municipal Council of Imo State were studied. Their effects on catfish output were assessed and constraints were identified. Aquaculture is a viable alternative to meet human daily protein need. In Nigeria catfish production is the most popular means. Sixty respondents were randomly sampled from a frame obtained from Imo ADP Owerri. Questionnaire was used to obtain relevant data from respondents, frequency tables, percentages and means were used to realize some objectives. Multiple linear regression was used to test the hypothesis of no significant effect of socio-economic characteristics on output. Results show that majority of respondents (70%) were below 61 years, 100% had formal education, and while 50% had secondary education. Socio-economic characteristics were identified to have very significant effect on output. Levels of significance were number of fingerlings 1%, gender and cost of labour 5% each and cost of water 10%. Frequency of the identified constraints was ranked, cost of feed ranked first while cost of labour ranked last. The study recommends reduction in the level and number of constraints through cooperative and government interventions for increased output.

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Title:            Assessment of Indigenous Knowledge Practices For Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security in Idemili South Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria


Author(s):   J. Chikaire, F. N. Nnadi, M. A. Ukpongson, N. O. Anyoha and K. E. Ezudike

 

Abstract:    The study Investigated Indigenous Knowledge Practices for sustainable Agriculture and Food Security in Idemili South Local Government Area of Anambra State. Data were collected using structured questionnaire administered to 120 respondent randomly selected using the simple random sampling technique. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Studies revealed that majority of the rural dwellers are farmers, literates and have vast knowledge of indigenous practices. There was an extensive use of indigenous knowledge in the area such as mulching, use of organic manure, sun drying, roasting and frying food, use of sacks, mixture of red pepper and placing under fire. The study further revealed that major constraints to the use of indigenous knowledge as perceived by the respondents are lack of documentation, time demanding and poor recognition. The study recommended among others that ICTs such as computer, internet and libraries be used to make indigenous knowledge accessible and incentives to the rural dwellers to reduce the cost they incurred in using indigenous agriculture and food security practices.

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Title:            Socio-Economic Determinants of the Productivity of Fadama Users: A case of Second National Fadama Development Project in Imo State, Nigeria

 

Author(s):   M. Mazza, O. O. Ekumankama, V.O. Onyenobi, R.U. Kanu and G.ONwaigwe

 

Abstract:    The study investigated the socio-economic determinants of the productivity of Fadama users in Imo State, Nigeria. It specifically examined the socio-economic characteristics of Fadama users and non fadama users so as to ascertain the techniques, practices and productivity of Fadama users. A total of two hundred and thirty five (235) respondents were sampled, comprising of one hundred and fifteen (115) Fadama users and one hundred and twenty (120) non Fadama users randomly selected from six Local Government Areas (LGA) out of the eleven LGAs that participated in the Second National Fadama Development Project in Imo State. Data were collected using two sets of questionnaire one for each group. Analyses of data were by descriptive statistics and multiple regression. Result showed that the Second National Fadama Development Project had positive significant effect on farmers’ productivity in the studied area.

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Title:            Determination of Economic Optimum Replacement Age of Oil Palm in Kogi State, Nigeria


Author(s):   S.O. Ukwuteno, E.C.Okorji and H. I. Opaluwa

 

Abstract:    The study was conducted to determine the optimum replacement age of oil palm. The tool of analysis used was optimum replacement model. Data for the study were collected from the Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research, NIFOR, Oil Palm Plantation, Acharu Substation and NIFOR Headquarters, Benin City. Data collected were analyzed using tool of analysis as specified. The study found that the cost of establishment of oil palm plantation was enormous, about N260, 252.70 per hectare per annum. Established oil palm plantation has four (4) years of gestation period before fruiting at which time the farmer would have to wait and bear the cost. The highest or peak yield was 13.50 tons/ha. The study shows that optimum replacement age of oil was 35 years. It is recommended that there should be conscious desire at new planting or replanting of oil palm. Oil palm farmers should be encouraged to cut down their old oil palm trees at the age of 35 years.

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Title:         Determinant of Entrepreneurship Choice Preference among Small Scale Leather Agro-Based Investors in Aba Metropolis, Abia State, Nigeria.

 Author(s):   J. Onwumere and J. A. Nmesirionye

 

Abstract:  The determinant of entrepreneurship activity choice preferences among leather investors in Aba Metropolis, Abia, Nigeria was investigated by this study. The study followed a multistage random selection of 120 investors involved in leather based agro entrepreneurship. Primary data from small scale investors in leather industry were gathered using structured questionnaire. Analyses of data were descriptive statistics and Ordinary Least Square multiple regression. It was observed that majority of the investors (97.5%) have preferences for male and female leather shoe sales, followed by male and female leather shoe production entrepreneurship respectively. The study covers investors’ age structure, education status, investment capital requirement, electric energy requirement, transportation and communication infrastructural requirements. To boost preferences in leather-based agro-entrepreneurship activities government need to enhance electric power supply to the sector, boost the performances of the transport sector.                                                                          Full text                                       


Title:        Impact and Adoption of Value Added Innovations in Root and Tuber Crops by Farmers in Abia State, Nigeria

 Author(s):   C. Aniedu, O.C. Aniedu and N. Nwakor

 

Abstract:   The study is to determine the impact and adoption rate of training and extension activity of value added innovations in root and tuber crops among farmers in Abia State, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was administered to 80 farmers in four zones of Umuahia, Aba, Ohafia and Ikwuano. The respondents were twenty in a particular meeting point in each zone. Data collected was analyzed using means, percentages and means scores. The result revealed that majority of the respondents were women who were reasonably aware of the innovations but their adoption rate was very low. The adoption of the technologies had reasonable impact on the livelihood of the respondents as most of those who adopted the technologies used them as food. However, the major problems associated with the adoption were lack of equipment/facilities and funds. It is therefore recommended that re-training and provision of equipment/facilities be intensified to enhance the adoption.

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Title:        Determinants of Gender Differentials in the Output of Cassava Farmers in Abia State, Nigeria

 Author(s):   J. Onwumere and N. C. Onwusiribe

 

Abstract:    The study was conducted to analyze the determinants of gender differentials in the output of male and female cassava farmers. The cassava farming activities done by the genders, the efficiency estimates of the farmers and factors that determine gender outputs as well as the socio economic characteristics of the cassava farmers in Abia State. The survey was undertaken using a well structured questionnaire. A purposive sampling technique was used to select Ikwuano Local Government Area in Abia State as the study area because of their prominence in cassava production given the fact that National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike is based there. Four clans that surrounded NRCRI, Umudike were chosen, 20 equal numbers of male and female cassava farmers from each of the four clans were selected making a total number of 80 respondents. Land clearing, preparation and ridging was found to be done by 93.75%, 68.75% and 97.50% of the male and 6.25%, 31.25% and 31.25% of the females, respectively. While planting, fertilizer application, weeding and harvesting was done by 10.00%, 37.50%, 22.50% and 72.50% of the males and 82.50%, 90.00%, 62.50 and 77.50% of the females, respectively. The analysis of the mean output in kg per hectare of the male and female cassava farmers shows the difference in the mean output. The efficiency distribution shows that 55.00% of the male operate at the efficiency range of <0.50 and 42.50% of the females operates at the efficiency distribution range of 0.70-0.79. The study reveals that women are more interested and committed in cassava production. Farm size, quantity of input, depreciation, age, education, farming experience and other factors were found to affect output of all the respondents. It is therefore pertinent that policy makers should pay attention to the female cassava farmers as they are found to be more productive. 

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Title:           Analysis of Edible Snail (Archachatina marginata) Marketing in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria

Author(s):   K.O. Adeneganand K.A. Bolaji-Olutunji

 

Abstract:   The study examined the marketing efficiency, profitability and the factors contributing to the profitability of snail marketing in Oyo State Nigeria. Forty copies of questionnaires were administered in five major markets in Ibadan (Aleshinloye, Oje, Orita-merin, Bodija and Apata markets). Simple descriptive analyses such as percentage and frequency table were used to describe the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents while multiple regression analysis was used to examine the determinants of profitability of snail marketing. It was discovered from the empirical result that 90% of the sellers were female while 10% were male. One hundred percent (100%) of the sellers were 20years of age and above, and have 10 or more years of experience, 37% had no formal education while 40% had primary education and 23% had secondary education. The average profit N24, 250 forms the Budgetary Analysis (Av.selling price –Av.cost price) while the marketing efficiency for different markets are 1.98, 1.54, 1.19, 1.25 and 1.60 for Aleshinloye, Oje, Oritamerin, Bodija and Apata respectively. Four regression functions (Linear Function, Semi log, double log and Exponential Function) were run to analyze the determinants of snail marketing profitability. The exponential function provided the best of fit equation because it has more significant variables, highest coefficient of multiple regression, R2 (0.66) and lowest DurbinWatson, DW (1.473).The marketing of Snail can be said to be profitable, efficient and sustainable. It can reduce poverty. Therefore, further research should be carried out to domesticate and rear more edible snails in Oyo State and Nigeria as a whole to get more supply of protein and calcium in our diets.

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Title:           Problems of Local Chicken Production in Isoko North Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria

 Author(s):   D. Adaigho and R. Nwadiolu

 

Abstract:  The study was to determine the problem of Local Chicken Production in Isoko North Local Government Area, Delta State. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted to select a total of Fifty (50) respondents. Data were collected through observation, interview and use of structured questionnaire. Analysis of data was by descriptive statistics and multiple regression. The study revealed that farmers who practice the intensive system significantly had higher stock density and net farm income than those who practice extensive and semi-intensive systems. The study also identified nine (9) problems militating against local chicken production and recommends that government should engage the services of more veterinary personnel, subsidizes drugs and make improved breeds readily available for local chicken farmers.                                                                          Full text


Title:          Analysis of Bitter Cola (Garcinia cola) and Alligator Pepper (Aframomum melegueta) Marketing in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State.

 Author(s):   O. O. Famuyide, K. A. Bolaji-Olutunji, O. Adebayo, and O.A. Adeniran

 

Abstract:  The study investigated the market structure and efficiency as well as the profitability of Garcinia cola and Aframomum melegueta in selected markets in Ibadan, Oyo state. A total of eighty (80) sellers were interviewed with the aid of structured questionnaire in some selected markets (Oja’ba, Agbeni, Bode, Shasha and Oojo). Simple descriptive analyses such as percentage and frequency were used to describe the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents while gross margin and regression analyses were employed to determine the profitability and efficiency of the markets. The result shows that 88% of the sellers were women while 12.5% were men. 88% of respondents were involved in selling G.cola and A.melegneta, 5% accounted for A.melegneta selling alone, while the remaining 7% is for G.cola, A.melegneta and kola nut. 55% of the sellers were 40years and above and had between 10 and 50 years of experience. This study actually dwells on oligopolistic market structure, in which market is dominated by small number of firms that together control the majority of the market share. The sellers are controlled and given information about price, safety, where and when to market .The association also protect the sellers all over the state. The members pay between N700-N1,000 to the association and collect receipt or tickets so no need to pay at all as an individual to the local  or state government  again, it is been settled by the association This was due to the fact that these  people inherited the business from the parents or formally learn the business. The Marketing Efficiencies (ME) is 1.69 and 1.29 for G .cola and A. melegneta respectively.  This implies that for every naira (N1) spent on G.cola there is N0.69 return and a return of N0.28k on every naira spent on A.melegneta. Marketing of G. cola and A.melegneta can be said to be profitable, efficient and sustainable. The business can alleviate poverty. Therefore, further research should be carried out to grow these products more around South West Nigeria to make it more abundant and reduce procurement.

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Title:        Effect of Infrastructural Facilities on Rural Farmers Poverty Level in Oyo State

 Author(s):  F.I. Olagunju,R.A. Ololade, O. Ayinde, J.T.O. Oke and R.O. Babatunde

 

Abstract:  This study examined the effect of infrastructural facilities on rural farmers’ poverty level in Oyo State, with an objective to identify the socio-economic characteristics of the rural farmers, examined the poverty profile of the rural farmers and determined factors affecting poverty level of the rural farmers. Data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaires, administered on 210 respondents using multistage sampling procedure. The data were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics, Foster Greer Theobecke (FGT) weighted poverty index and Logit model. The multinomial Logit model revealed that significant relationships existed between primary occupation (-2.718) and farming experience (-2.312), age (3.353), gender (2.854), education (1.7978), access to electricity (3.690), access to storage (2.504), and income (3.878) on the  poverty level of rural farmers. The variables were significant at 10%. The mean per capita expenditure revealed that 83.81% of the rural farmers are poor while 16.19% are non-poor. It is concluded that farmers should join hands together with government supporting them in having a better source of electricity and the provision of a less sophisticated storage system for themselves.

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                                                                 Agronomy

 

 Title:        Effects of Different Levels of Phosphorus on the Growth and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Ofere (Basement Complex) Soil Kogi State, North Central Ecological Zone, Nigeria

Author(s):  S.O. Amhakhian, C.I. Oyewoleand H.H. Isitekhale

 

Abstract:    In southern guinea savanna of Nigeria, where ofere belongs, the soils are inherently low in P due to the dry nature of the climate, low vegetation cover and generally sandy nature of the soil, whose clay mineralogy is dominated by inactive kaolinite materials. This study was undertaken in Ofere, Kogi State, Nigeria to investigate the response of maize crop to addition of varying rates of phosphorus. The trail, a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) involves seven rates of P (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120kg/ha) applied as single super phosphate (SSP) for P calibration. The soils of the area were analyzed for physical and chemical properties prior to imposition of treatment. In the field calibration studies, the results showed that optimum maize grain yield of 3.93 and 4.86 ton/ha were obtained for 2007 and 2008 cropping season, respectively from the application of 120kg P/ha. Application of 120kg P/ha is therefore recommended for maize production in soils of Ofere, Kogi State of Nigeria.

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Title:          Yield and Yield Components of two quality Protein Maize (Zea mays L.) Varieties as Affected by Nitrogen and Sulfur Fertilizers at Samaru.

 Author(s):  M. M. Jaliya, U. F. Chiezey, B. Tanimu, E. Barwa and M. Goni

 

Abstract:   Field trial was conducted in 2006, 2007 and 2008 wet seasons, at the Institute for Agricultural Research Farm, Samaru in the Northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria to determine the effects of nitrogen and sulfur fertilizer rates on quality protein maize (QPM) varieties. Treatments consisted of four (4) rates each of nitrogen (0, 60,120 and 180 kg N/ha) and sulfur fertilizer (0, 5, 10 and 15 kg S/ha) and two QPM varieties (Obatampa and EV – 99), laid out in a split plot design with variety and nitrogen in the main plots and sulfur in the sub plots and replicated three times. The results show that application of 120 kg N/ha produced significantly lower days to 50% tasselling and silking but higher Cob weight/plant and cob weight/ha. Sulfur rates applied significantly influenced days to 50% tasselling, silking, cob weight/plant and cob weight/ha where the responses to S rates were inconsistent between years and their mean. While 10 and 15 kg S/ha produced similar but significantly lower days to 50% tasselling and silking but higher cob weight/plant and cob weight/ha than 0 and 5 kg S/ha. Obatampa variety was observed to produce higher days to 50% tasselling, silking and Cob weight/plant than EV – 99 variety. The study revealed that 120kg N/ha, 10 kg S/ha and Obatampa variety are the best combination for high yield in the northern Guinea savanna ecological zone of Nigeria.

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Title:          Grain Protein and Gluten Content of Wheat as Influenced by Water Stress, Sowing Date and Variety in Sokoto, Sudan Savannah, Nigeria.

Author(s):  M.B. Sokoto, I. U. Abubakar, N. D. Ibrahim and A. U. Dkko

 

Abstract:    Field experiments were conducted during the 2009/10 and 2010/2011 dry seasons at the Fadama Teaching and Research Farm of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, in the Sudan Savanna ecological zone of Nigeria, the farm is located on  latitude 130011N; longitude 50151E and at an altitude of about 350 m above sea level. The study investigated the effect of water stress, sowing date, variety on grain protein and gluten content of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).The treatments consisted of factorial combination of water stress at three critical growth stage which was imposed by withholding water at (Tillering, Flowering, Grain filling) and Control (No stress), two varieties (Star 11 TR 77173/SLM and Kuaze/Weaver) and four sowing dates laid out in a split plot design with three replications. Result revealed that water stress sowing date and the varieties had no significant effect on grain protein content. Water stress at flowering resulted to significant reduction in gluten content, but sowing date and the varieties had no significant effect on grain gluten content. Water stress at flowering was the most critical stages in gluten content in wheat.

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Title:          Dry Matter Accumulation and Harvest Index of Wheat as Influenced by Water Stress, Sowing Date and Variety in Sokoto, Sudan Savannah Nigeria.

Author(s):  M.B. Sokoto, I. U. Abubakar and A. U. Dkko


Abstract:  Field experiments were conducted during the 2009/10 and 2010/2011 dry seasons at the Fadama Teaching and Research Farm of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, in the Sudan Savanna ecological zone of Nigeria. The study investigated the effect water stress, sowing date and variety on dry matter accumulation and harvest index of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).The treatments consisted of factorial combination of water stress at three critical growth stage which was imposed by withholding water at (Tillering, Flowering, Grain filling) and Control (No stress), two varieties (Star 11 TR 77173/SLM and Kuaze/Weaver) and four sowing dates were laid out in a split plot design with three replications. Water stress and Date of sowing were assigned to the main-plot, while the varieties was assigned to the sub-plots. Result revealed that there is significant (P<0.05) effect of water stress on total aerial phytomass and harvest index. Water stress at tillering resulted to decrease in total aerial phytomass, whereas water stress at flowering and grain filling resulted to decreased in harvest index. There was also significant effect of sowing date on total aerial phytomass and harvest index. Early sown wheat significantly differed from the late sown in both the former and the latter. Total aerial phytomass and harvest index decreased with delay in sowing date and it was highest at 21st November and 5th December and lowest at 19th December and 2nd January sown wheat. Variety had no significant effect on total aerial phytomass, but Star 11 TR 77173/SLM differed significantly from Kuaze/Weaver with higher harvest index. Water stress at tillering is the most critical for total aerial phytomass, whereas water stress at flowering and grain filling was the most critical stages in harvest index. in wheat. While delay in sowing resulted in reduction in total aerial phytomass and harvest index of wheat, Wheat should be sown in November or at least first week of December,Star II TR 77173/SLM is the recommended variety for the area because of its superior performance in harvest index over Kuaze/Weaver.

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Title:          Assessment of Yam Biodiversity at Community Level in Ebonyi State, Nigeria, West Africa.

Author(s):  C. F. Uwasomba, O. N. Eke-Okoro, A. Udealor and J. E. G. Ikeorgu

 

Abstract:   Earlier survey carried out for collection and conservation of the yam biodiversities could not be sustained in the gene bank as a good number of them have gone on extinction. This necessitated the need for collaborative efforts by Biodiversity Trust and National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike to embark on a survey to collect all the landraces in the yam belt of Nigeria in which Ebonyi State falls, with the aim of identifying those that are extinct from the farming systems of the studied areas. Yams (Dioscorea sp., family Dioscoreacea) which are annual or perennial tuber-bearing and climbing plants are an important tuber crop in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. It is the only crop that is celebrated amongst the people. Over 600 species exist but only few are cultivated as food for man’s use. The yam belt stretches from the humid rainforest in the South to the Northern Guinea Savannah. About 85% of a yam tuber is edible, comprising of 15-23% starch, 1-2.5% protein, 0.05- 0.2% fat and so forth. Diverse species exist in different communities as a result of farmers preferences. This very important food crop is faced with serious problems of loss of biodiversity and land degradation. Questionnaire with open-ended questions was used to gather information from the farmers. Information on farmer’s varietal, agronomic, culinary, socio-cultural and economic characteristics was discussed. Farmers in the studied areas reported that a total of two yam accessions have gone on extinction.

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Title:          Response of wheat to different sowing date in Sokoto, Sudan Savannah Nigeria.

Author(s):  M.B. Sokoto, I. U. Abubakar, A. Singh and A. U. Dkko

 

Abstract:    Field experiments were conducted during the 2009/10 and 2010/2011 dry seasons at the Fadama Teaching and Research Farm of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, in the Sudan Savanna ecological zone of Nigeria, the farm is located on latitude 130011N; longitude 50151E and at an altitude of about 350 m above sea level. The study investigated the response of bread wheat to different sowing date. The treatments consisted of four sowing dates laid out in a split plot design with three replications. Result revealed that early sown wheat significantly differs from the late sown in both seasons and combined. Grain yield decreased with delay in sowing date and it was highest at 21st November and 5th December and lowest at other sowing dates. Delay in sowing resulted in reduction in grain yield of wheat, Wheat should be sown in November or at least first week of December.

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Title:          Assessment of Maize (Zea mays L.) Performance in Mixture with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

Author(s):  E. S. Attah, C. I. Oyewole and A. E. Agahiu

 

Abstract:   A study to determine the performance of maize as influenced by the associated cowpea, population density and row arrangement was conducted for two years. Maize (cv. MEGA-4) was intercropped with three cowpea cultivars [cvs. Ileje, L-25 and IAR-48]. Each cowpea cultivar was planted at three population densities (40,000; 66.666 and 80,000 plants ha-1) with a fixed maize population density of 40,000 plants ha-1 and two row arrangements (1:1 maize-cowpea inter-row and 1:1 maize-cowpea intra-row). The experiment was established in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with treatments arranged in split-spilt plot and replicated three times, each year. Results indicated significant (P<0.05) interactions of cowpea cultivar with population density for maize grain yield. Maize produced higher grain yield when intercropped with Ileje at 40,000 plants ha-1 than at 66,666 or 80,000 plants ha-1 but was not different when intercropped with L.25 or IAR-48 cultivars at all plant densities studied. There was also a significant (P<0.05) row arrangement effect for maize plant height, while all the development and grain yield parameters measured were not affected by the treatments. In spite of the non-significant row arrangement effect for maize grain yield, 1:1 maize-cowpea inter-row arrangement is a better alternative to 1:1 maize-cowpea intra-row arrangement because it gave higher grain yield.

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Entomology and Parasitology

 

Title:          Evaluation of some Protozoan Pathogens of Tribolium castaneum HERST. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Dermestes maculates DEGEER. (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) as possible Biocontrol Agents

Author(s):  H.L. Njila and G.S. Mwansat


Abstract:   An evaluation of Protozoan pathogens of Tribolium castaneum and Dermestes was undertaken to obtain information on their distribution, abundances and importance as biocontrol agents. A total of 320 larvae were dissected (80 each). The study period was from November – May. The following specific Primary pathogens were seen, Adelina tribolii, Farinocystis tribolii (Dermestes maculates). All the primary Pathogens seen appeared to be most common on T. casteneum (N. whitei 53.8%: A. tribolii 42.5%; F. tribolii 36.3% and Gregarina Spp 6.3%) than D. maculates, Gregarina Spp appears to have high number of occurrence (78.8%) and F. tribolii (2.5%). Mixed infections were recorded mostly in T. castaneum, with a total of 19.2% and D. maculates has 2.5%. The occurrence of N. whitei and A. tribolii, F. tribolii, Gregarina Spp appears to be most common with 17.5%

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Weed Management

 

Title:          Comparative Effectiveness and Economics of Cultural and Chemical Weed Control in Sweetpotato Production in Rain Forest Zone of Nigeria.

 

Author(s): D. S. Korieocha, M. C. Ogbonna, H. N. Anyaegbunam, J. U. Amajor,C. N. Ehisianya and S. C. Njoku

 

Abstract:    A two year field study was conducted at the Research farm of National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike, to assess the effectiveness and economics of manual and chemical weed control measures in sweetpotato production. The treatments consisted of eleven (11) herbicides and TIS 87/0087 sweetpotato variety. Data were obtained using cost route approach and were analyzed by employing complete costing analysis. Weed control ratings in the plots were taken at 8 WAP on a grating scale of 0-10. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance using GLM procedure of SAS and significant difference among means of variables were tested, using fisher’s least significant differences (LSD) at 5% alpha level. The herbicides treatments gave excellent weed control up to 8 weeks after planting (WAP).  The unweeded control significantly (P<0.05) produced the highest weed density, compared to manual weeding Weed density was lower in plot treated with paraeforce herbicides by 23.8% compared to the other herbicides treatments. Fluazifopbutyl gave the highest sweetpotato mean yields (20.8t/ha). The results revealed that Fluazifopbutyl (fusillade) at 2.0 kilogram active ingredient per hectare (kgai/ha) has a greater comparative advantage over other weed control methods because; the net return per hectare is N171, 618.73 more than others. Therefore, this chemical was recommended for the control of weed in sweetpotato production.

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Title:          Effect of Selected Herbicides and Integrated Weed Management on the Control of Mimosa invisa Mart in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

 Author(s):  A. A. Melifonwu, D. S. Korieocha, M. C. Ogbonna, and R. B. Balogun

 Abstract:   Two field experiments were conducted at the National Root Crops Research Institute (N.R.C.R.I) Umudike between 2007 and 2008 to evaluate some selected herbicides and integrated weed management for the control of giant sensitive plant (Mimosa invisa Mart) in cassava. The treatments were a proprietary mixture of xtrazine (2 – chloro – 4 – (ethylamino) – 6 – (iso propylamino) – s – triazine) + metolachlor (2 – chloro – N – (2 – ethyl – 6 – methylphenyl) – N – (2 methoxyl – 1 – methylethyl) acetamide) (Primextra Gold 660SC) at 2.5 and 3.5kg a.i./ha,Primextra Gold at 2.5kg a.i/ha followed by paraquat (1, 1l’ -  dimethyl – 4, 41– bi’ pyridinium dichloride) at 1.0kg a.i./ha; Primextra Gold at  2.5kg a.i/ha + manual weeding(MW) at 12 weeks after planting (WAP); a proprietary mixture of xtrazine + terbutylazine (2 – chloro – 4 – tert – butyl – amino – 6 – ethylamino – s – triazine) (Raft) at 2.5 and 3.5kg a.i./ha; xtrazine at 2.0 and 3.0kg a.i./ha, xtrazine at 2.0kg a.i./ha + manual weeding at 12 WAP, hand-weeded at 3+8+12 WAP, weed-free and un-weeded checks. The site used for the experiment was infested predominantly with giant sensitive plant. Primextra Gold 600SC at 2.5 and 3.5kg a.i/ha; xtrazine at 2.0 and 3.0kg a.i/ha and raft 500SC at 2.5 and 3.5kg a.i/ha applied alone controlled mimosa effectively as the hand-weeded checks for only 8 WAP. The herbicide treatments controlled the thorny weed and other weeds satisfactorily for 12 WAP. Thereafter, only primextra and xtrazine at 2.5 and 2.0kg a.i./ha that received supplementary hand weeding at 12 WAP controlled the weed effectively as the hand weeded checks for 16 WAP. The weed-free check gave the highest root yield of cassava (30t/ha), followed by hand weeding at 3+8+12 WAP (15t/ha). Plots treated with primextra and xtrazine at 2.5 and 2.0 kg a.i./ha followed by supplementary hand weeding at 12WAP produced cassava root yields that were comparable to hand weeding at 3+8+12 WAP. Primextra Gold at 2.5 and 3.5 kg a.i./ha ; raft at 2.5 and 3.5kg a.i./ha, xtrazine at 2.0 and 3.0kg a.i./ha alone reduced root yields of cassava by 61, 62, 57, 65, 64 and 74% respectively compared to the hand weeded check at 3+8+12 WAP. Results of this study suggest that xtrazine and primextra at 2.0 and 2.5kg a.i./ha followed by supplementary hand weeding at 12 WAP could provide alternative weed management option to hoe-weeding, for high yield and economic returns in cassava in the humid rainforest zone of Nigeria.

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Title:        Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on the Duration of Weed Interference in Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas [L.]) on an Ultisol at Umudike, South-Eastern Nigeria.

 Author(s):  D.S. Korieocha and F.Ekeleme 


Abstract:   Field studies were conducted at the Research farm of the National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) Umudike, South-Eastern Nigeria in 2005 and 2006 cropping seasons, to investigate the effect of Nitrogen fertilizer on the duration of weed interference in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) on an ultisol at Umudike.  The experiment was set up as a split plot in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), replicated three times.  Sweetpotato was planted at 100 x 30cm on the crest of well prepared ridges.  The main plot treatments consisted of three rates of nitrogen fertilizer, namely 0, 60 and 90 kg N/ha applied as urea.  The sub plot treatments consisted of 10 levels of duration of weed interference before weed removal, starting from 0 (weed-free), 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 weeks of weed interference and unweeded treatments.  Data on weed density, weed dry matter were collected using two 1m x1m quadrants.  Yields were collected by 50kg weighing balance.  Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance.  Means separation were carried out using standard error of difference.  The results obtained over the two years indicate that sweetpotato produces optimum total yield at 60kg N/ha.  Applications of nitrogen fertilizer significantly increase weed growth and reduced weed density.  Weed interference for 6 weeks before weed removal from plots increase average yield; weed interference for 1 week and unweeded treatments reduced sweetpotato root yield by 30-40%.  It is therefore, recommended that the application   of 60kg N/ha and removal of weeds at 6 weeks after planting be adopted for optimum sweetpotato yield.

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Animal Science and Technology

 

Title:            Effect of Dietary Acetylsalicylic Acid in Alleviating Heat Stress in Laying Birds in the Tropics.

 Author(s):  E. A. Amao and M. F. Siyanbola

 

Abstract:    This study examined the inclusion of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) at different levels (0.00%, 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.15%) in the diet of 120 laying birds in reducing the negative effect of heat stress on their productivity and egg qualities. The birds were allotted into four treatments of 10 birds each and the experiment was replicated three times. They were fed ad libitum and eggs collected per treatment were analyzed for external and internal qualities. The result shows significant difference (p<0.05) in weight gain, hen day production in favour of layers fed 0.10% ASA (69.21%), feed intake, haugh unit, shell thickness, membrane weight, egg shape index and shell density. The mean values for shell thickness favors birds fed acetylsalicylic acid especially at 0.05% inclusion level. Inclusion of acetylsalicylic acid in layers diet at 0.05% favors shell thickness and especially when they are heat stressed.

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Title:          A Rapid Method of Processing Cassava Roots into a Feedstuff

Author(s):  C.O. Okereke, S.N. Ukachukwu and A. Udealor

 

Abstract:   The use of cassava as feedstuff has some limiting factors. This study tried to address some of these factors. The major limitation as addressed by this study is the presence of toxic cyanogenic glucosides. A shorter period was used in achieving a tolerant HCN level in the resulting cassava product. This was aided by the flaking process which increased surface area, making it easy for dewatering and fast drying of cassava root flakes subjected to the 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h pressing periods. The result showed that the HCN content in the five samples (A-E) subjected to different hours of pressing (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h) was 86.00, 60.40, 40.96, 34.00 and 13.94 mg/100g respectively, which indicated that it was only the 24h press duration that gave HCN level that is below toxic level. Hence, a longer period was used in achieving a tolerant HCN level in the resulting cassava product.

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General

 Title:         Exploration Analyses of the Performance of Medium Scale Fast Food Enterprise in South East Nigeria.

Author(s):  J. Onwumere and A.C. Nwosu


Abstract:    This study explored the profit performance of fast food enterprises in South East Nigeria. A panel data set covering 2005-2008 was used for the analysis. The data were obtained from fast foods enterprise records. A total of ninety (90) fast food enterprises were selected. The method of data collection involved firstly, a purposive selection based on the functional enterprises and secondly a randomly selection from the sample frame of the functional enterprises. The data collected where analyzed with descriptive statistics, income statement and transcendental logarithm model was used and this conveyed how each enterprise maximized profit for a given set of input. The result obtained from the analysis shows that the dominant ownership pattern among the enterprises is sole proprietorship. The income statement analysis which compared the operating cost and returns showed that the enterprise is profitable. Further the analysis of the determinant of profit performance of the enterprises revealed that the total variance (S2) is 75.3% and the variance ratio is 99.99% indicating goodness of fit. The estimation showed that wage rate, price of fuel (energy), interest rate and the unit cost of transportation where the factors affecting profitability in the short run and only wage rate appeared significant on the second order signifying long run. It is concluded that the fast food enterprise is a profitable venture in the area which could be operated. However, it is recommended that entrepreneurs need to improve in the wage rate paid to the employee which is an incentive in its own to encourage performance.

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Title:          Profitability of Venturing into Commercial Bakery Industry in South East, Nigeria.

Author(s):  J. Onwumere, J. A. Mbanasor and P. O. Ukpebor

 

Abstract:    Bakery enterprise in Nigeria has been found to be routinely inconsistent in operations. Following this backdrop, this study tried to ascertain whether, venturing into bakery agribusiness is profitable or not. The analysis was carried out in the South East region of Nigeria. A panel data set covering 2005-2008 was used for the analysis. The source for the data was bakery enterprise records within period of the study.  Ninety (90) bakery enterprises were chosen for the study.     Data collection process include, a purposive selection of bakeries based on the functional enterprises and random selections from the sample frame of the functional enterprises. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, income statement analysis and transcendental logarithm model involving stochastic profit frontier model. The result showed that majority of the enterprises’ ownership pattern is sole proprietorship. The result from income statement analysis considering the differences between the total revenue, total cost of production and the emerging returns showed that bakery enterprise is profitable. In the same vein, the analysis of the determinant of profit performance of the enterprise revealed that the variance ratio is 99.1% indicating goodness of fit. The significant variables that negatively affected the enterprise profit in the short run were wage rate, price of flour, sugar, fat, fuel, interest rate, and unit cost of transportation. But examination of the interaction behavior of the variables among themselves showed positive contribution to profit with respect to the interactions. Also, at second order differencing unit cost of transportation and wage rate related positively with the enterprise profit. This indicates long run well being for the enterprises if they will maintain stability in operation. It is concluded that bakeries are profitable venture with respect to the study area and they have the capacity to generate profitable return if given best practices. Therefore, it is recommended that the enterprises should operate on maintaining minimum raw material input, transportation costs and increase the wage rate of the employees as a way of incentive to enhance profitability. Also, governmental policies should aim at reducing input prices to reduce the production costs of the enterprises.

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 Title:          Determinants of Household Use of Healthcare Facilities in Abia State, Nigeria.

 Author(s):  U. Apu, O.O. Ekumankama and R.P.A. Unamma

 

Abstract:  The study analyzed the annual government expenditure and evaluated the determinants of household use of healthcare facilities for people in the study area between 1999 and 2006. It also identified available healthcare facilities provided by government and ascertained the state of those facilities, among others. Multistage random sampling procedure was used in selecting respondents for the study. Data collection was facilitated by the use of structured questionnaire, which was administered on 360 respondents. Of the 360 questionnaire administered, 340 valid returns were recorded and this constituted the sample size for the study. Simple descriptive statistics such as frequency counts and percentages as well as inferential statistics such as the ordinary least squares (OLS) regression were used to analyse data collected. Results revealed huge government expenditure for the provision of social services intended to promote and ensure the good health of the citizenry. A high level of formal education was found among the sampled population. Only about 0.9% had no formal education. Majority (63.2%) of the respondents had moderately sized households ranging from 4 to 6 persons. Results further showed that majority of the healthcare facilities (73.5%) in the study area were provided by government. Results of the OLS regression analysis revealed that income, healthcare source, and number of visits to the healthcare source were all positively and significantly related to the level of utilization of healthcare facilities among respondents in the study rear. However, level of formal education and the state of healthcare facilities were found to be negatively related to the level of utilization of healthcare facilities among respondents in the area. The determinants of household use of healthcare facilities in the study area were income, healthcare source, number of visits to the healthcare source, level of formal education and the state of healthcare source. Positive relationship was established for income and healthcare source at 5% level, while number of visits to the healthcare source was significant at 1% level. Increased government funding for provision of basic social amenities (including healthcare facilities) in the rural areas was recommended. This will ensure that the scope of services rendered for the benefit of the rural population is enlarged and will also ensure sustainability of the facilities provided.

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Title:          Assessment of the Effects of Climate Change and Its Adaptation Measures on Agricultural Production in Arochukwu Local Government Area, Abia State.

Author(s):  F. N. Onumadu and H. O. Okore

 Abstract:   The study assessed the effects of climate change and its adaptation measures on agricultural production in Arochukwu Local Government Area of Abia State Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers in the study area, determine farmers’ awareness of climate change, examine effects of climate change on agricultural products and identify adaptation measures employed by farmers to combat climate change. A simple random sampling was used to select a sample size of 120 farmers who participated in the study. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data for the study and the data collected were subjected to both descriptive and inferential statistics analysis. The descriptive statistics involved frequency counts and percentages while the inferential statistics involved the use of simple linear regression. The results of the analysis show that majority of the farmers (54.0%) were female. About (35.0%) were aged between 20-30 years, over (55.0%) had secondary education while (45.0%) had household size of 6-10 people. Majority (57.0%) were married, and are small-scale farmers with over 30.0% having between 11 to 15 years farming experience. About 22.0% of the farmers were aware of climate change in the studied area while 26.7% observed climate change between 6 and 7 years ago. For food crops: climate change has positive effects on cassava (89.2%), vegetables (78.3%), and yams (62.5%) while the effect is negative on sweet potato (80.8%) and others (77.7%). For livestock: climate change is positive on poultry (66.7%), sheep and goat (57.5%), while negative on pig (65.3%), cattle (91.7%) and rabbit (80.8%). For agro-forestry:  the effects of climate change are negative on all agro-forestry practices such as apiculture (96.7%), mushroom and forage (90.0%) respectively, aquaculture (78.3%) and snailery (59.2%). Mixed cropping (12.9%), mono-cropping (11.9%) and mulching (10.7%) among others are favoured by farmers as adaptation measures to combat climate change. The test of the hypothesis showed that age and rainfall are negatively related to agricultural output while farming experience, farm size, and education are positively related to agricultural output. It was recommended that farmers should explore more adaptation measures to checkmate negative effects of climate change on agricultural production so as to reduce hunger and poverty.

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 Title:          Fractional Recovery of Applied Phosphorus in soils of Kogi State, North Central Nigeria.

 Author(s):  S.O. Amhakhianand I.O. Osemwota

 Abstract:    Ten composite surface soil samples representing the distinct geological formation of Kogi state north central Nigeria were treated with various concentration levels of phosphorus and the amount of phosphorus measured at intervals of 1, 28 and 42 days. The phosphorus fixing capacities of the soils increased with increasing levels of P addition and equilibration time. At 1 day, phosphorus fixation capacities estimated by fractional recovery ranged from 2 to 49% and at 42 days observation it varied from 32 to 64%, respectively. The amount of phosphorus required to raise the value of Bray P-1 by 1mgL‑1 (Fertilizer factor) at 42 days varied from 1.25 to 8.07 1mgL‑1 with a corresponding mean of 2.41mgL‑1. The fertilizer factor seemed to provide a useful guideline of obtaining the phosphorus fertilizer needs of the soil.

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